To counteract the negative impacts of prejudice and their limited English ability the Japanese, like many immigrants, concentrated in ghettos (the two main ones were Powell Street in Vancouver and the fishing village of Steveston) and developed their own institutions — schools, hospitals, temples, churches, unions, cooperatives and self-help groups. The issei's contact with white society was primarily economic but the nisei (second generation) were Canadian born and were more attuned to life in the wider Canadian community. They were fluent in English, well-educated and ready to participate as equals but were faced with the same prejudices experienced by their parents. Their demand in 1936 for the franchise as Canadian-born people was denied because of opposition from politicians in British Columbia. They had to wait for another thirteen years before they were given the right to vote.
Japanese immigration stopped completely during the Second World War and did not resume until 1967 when a revised immigration law opened the doors to immigrants who met language and education criteria. In 1977, 100 years after Manzo Nagano arrived in Canada, a mountain in British Columbia was named after him. Today, the 90-year time span between the immigration of the Issei and subsequent generations marks a historical division among Japanese people: those whose ancestors arrived before the Second World War and those who arrived in the 1960s and later.