Essentially, Hardy & Fazey's (1988) catastrophe model is still in its 'infancy'. Moreover, it has yet to evolve from its conceptual framework stage to a fully established and accepted theory. This, however, may not occur for some time as there is still very little current or on-going research involving the model to sufficiently validate its proposed explanation of A-state competitive anxiety. Additionally, this situation has been exasperated by the difficulty in testing the model. At present there are four alternative methods that can be utilised to measure data relating to catastrophes: Oliva et al.'s (1987) GEMCAT, or general multivariate methodology for estimating catastrophe models; non-linear regression analysis; Cobb's (1981) parameter estimation model; and Guastello's (1987) dynamical differences method. However, following her unsuccessful application of the GEMCAT method, and criticism over the lack of research using Cobb's (1981) parameter estimation model, Krane (1990) postulated that the preferred method for analysing catastrophes should be either the non-linear regression method, or Guastello's (1987) dynamical differences method. Additionally, it should also be noted that the majority of the research has been conducted by the same small number of behavioural scientists, thus adding to the questionable validity of the model and its role in sport and exercise psychology. Clearly, the encouragement of 'fresh' researchers with novel methods of measurement is required to bolster the model's position in the solution to the competitive anxiety phenomenon. Finally, despite it's shortcomings, Hardy & Fazey's (1987) approach has been regarded by many as a plausible 'up to date' alternative to the outmoded multidimensional theory (. Jones, 1995). Nevertheless, the multidimensional theory has been invaluable in leading the way towards the identification and establishment of cognitive and somatic anxiety/physiological arousal as two distinct sub-components of A-state. References
One of the earliest psychology societies was La Société de Psychologie Physiologique in France, which lasted 1885–1893. The first meeting of the International Congress of Psychology took place in Paris, in August 1889, amidst the World's Fair celebrating the centennial of the French Revolution. William James was one of three Americans among the four hundred attendees. The American Psychological Association was founded soon after, in 1892. The International Congress continued to be held, at different locations in Europe, with wider international participation. The Sixth Congress, Geneva 1909, included presentations in Russian, Chinese, and Japanese, as well as Esperanto . After a hiatus for World War I, the Seventh Congress met in Oxford, with substantially greater participation from the war-victorious Anglo-Americans. In 1929, the Congress took place at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, attended by hundreds of members of the American Psychological Association  Tokyo Imperial University led the way in bringing the new psychology to the East, and from Japan these ideas diffused into China.