At the state level, Democrats gained three governorships in 2002 and Republicans lost one, with a total of 24 new governors taking office. This was the largest number of new governors since 1960. Prior to the election, party control of governors stood at 27 Republican, 21 Democratic, and two independents. After the election, party control stood at 26 Republican and 24 Democratic governors. Democrats picked up key posts in Illinois, Michigan, and Pennsylvania and won surprise victories in Kansas and Wyoming. But Republicans won in the traditionally Democratic strongholds of Georgia, Hawaii, and Maryland. Overall, the governor's office switched party control in 20 states.
So has the death of broken window theory been
exaggerated? The Harcourt and Ludwig (2006) research discrediting the original
broken window theory may tell us that physical signs of disorder do not predict
neighbourhood crime; but what they do predict is more physical disorder. And on what
grounds is it deemed acceptable that people should be expected to live in such an
environment? Where broken windows are not being repaired and other maintenance is not
being carried out, residents (yes, that includes schoolchildren) are being subjected to
disrespect on the part of the services established and funded to maintain order.
From work I've done on estates in the past I'm sure that local people often sense the danger of a tipping point of disorder, although they might not articulate it in terms of 'broken window theory' or collective efficacy or whatever. - Kevin Harris, Mending broken window theory.
Symbols of Death and Time