There is also much debate about how Homer composed such long poems, because for people now to memorize such long stanzas, seems impossible. It's said some editor merged all his works as one whole epic. The fact that uncomfortable transitions from topic to topic in his poems supports the argument.
An argument that has tried to subsidized with the reasoning that lengthy works can be composed orally by poets whose recitations belong to a long tradition of storytelling. The oral poet constructs his poem from verbal formulas, groups of two or more words that have already been composed in order to serve recurring needs in the narrative. These may be used, for example, when the poet wishes to reintroduce a character that he has already described.
Many scholars agree that Iliad and Odyssey underwent change and were improved during the 8the century from the original material. Athenian tyrant Hipparchus played an important role in this improvement. The refinement of the Homeric text must have involved the production of canonical written text.
While Iliad and Odyssey have become famous, his Homeric Hymns have not remained far behind. The Homeric Hymns are short poems celebrating the various Gods. The styles if the Homeric Hymns are same as the Iliad and Odyssey, the reason for which they are attributed to Homer.
As Homer was non-literate how these poems were written are arguable. Perhaps, he dictated his poems to a scribe who wrote them. The Greek alphabet was also introduced around the 8th century so Homer must have been among the first rhapsodes who were literate.
Major excavations at the site of Troy in 1870 under the direction of German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann revealed a small citadel mound and layers of debris 25 meters deep. Later studies have document more than 46 building phases grouped into nine bands representing the site’s inhabitation from 3,000 . until its final abandonment in . 1350. Recent excavations have shown an inhabited area 10 times the size of the citadel, making Troy a significant Bronze Age city. Layer VIIa of the excavations, dated to about 1180 ., reveals charred debris and scattered skeletons—evidence of a wartime destruction of the city that may have inspired portions of the story of the Trojan War. In Homer’s day, 400 years later, its ruins would have still been visible.